Justin Balthrop is the author of Cake (the Clojure build tool, not the spongy delicious treat). He works for Geni and is an alumni of The University of New Mexico1. Interestingly, Justin (or ninjudd as he is known on the Intertubes) is the only person I’ve ever met who looks just like his/her online images.
What led you to Clojure?
I was obsessed with Logo in fourth grade. The other kids wanted to play Oregon Trail, and I wanted to tell the turtle how to draw things. The fact that the drawing commands were relative to the turtle’s current position made a lot of sense to me. It’s so different from the way a human draws. Like the difference between looking at a maze on paper and actually being inside a maze.
After that, I didn’t see Lisp again until my second year in college. I almost gave up on Computer Science after the first C++ class, but someone in one of my math classes convinced me to take “Non-Imperative Programming”. It was all about Scheme, and I was obsessed immediately. The professor, Lance Williams, taught the class using Emacs instead of a chalk board. He wrote programs and ran them in class, debugging and refactoring as he went. There was something magical about the REPL and the way it let you develop software. I think I was more comfortable in Scheme after one day than C++ after an entire semester.
Since I didn’t have another functional programming class for two years, I applied to be a teaching assistant for the Scheme class so I could keep doing it. There’s nothing better than the look on a person’s face when functional programming starts making sense to them. After that, I started reading SICP and ANSI Common Lisp. Paul Graham’s philosophy of building programs from the bottom up quickly overtook the UML diagrams and requirements documents of traditional software engineering in my head.
Over the next eight years, I ended up doing C++, a bit of Java, then Perl and Ruby. I didn’t think I could make money programming Lisp, so I settled on Ruby, appeasing myself with the block syntax instead of macros and making my coworkers uncomfortable with too many lambdas. I tried to write functional Ruby code, but it was always a struggle. I once had to change a purely functional library to be impure because the calls to clone were too expensive without persistent data structures. It seemed like a small trade-off for performance at the time, but using mutable data structures allowed a bunch of nasty bugs to creep in since then. Someone should volunteer to implement persistent data structures for Ruby as a community service…
In the end, I happened upon Clojure by accident. We were in the process of looking for a faster language than Ruby for our graph traversal algorithms at Geni. We’d narrowed the choice down to Java, C++ or Erlang, when I saw a forum post comparing Clojure to Erlang that claimed Clojure could be as fast as Java with the right optimizations. I built a prototype of our graph in Clojure that was 10-20 times faster than our Ruby version, and I’ve been doing Clojure full-time ever since.
What is Cake and why is it important?
Cake is the build tool that we didn’t mean to write. We spent a heroic amount of time trying to use existing tools, but in the end, it came down to two things: 1) we wanted to write our builds in Clojure, not XML and 2) our builds were too complicated to do in Leiningen. This was before lein had hooks, and the first version of Cake was actually a proof of concept I wrote to show how I thought hooks should work in Leiningen. Then Lance Bradley added some basic tasks and all of a sudden we had a build tool.
I was pretty smitten by Martin Fowler’s rake article when I started programming Ruby, and it convinced me that dependency-based programming was the way to go for a build tool. Don’t get me wrong, functions are great. All but the most simple tasks in Cake are written as functions internally. But when you’re dealing with a bunch of interconnected actions that by definition have side-effects, there is a lot of incidental complexity that dependency-based programming deals with for you. This is especially true when users need to be able to extend and modify built-in tasks.
The other really exciting feature of Cake is the persistent JVM. I like the fast startup it provides, but aside from that, a shared, persistent process just makes sense for a language with concurrency primitives like Clojure. I love to open up multiple REPLs on the same JVM and experiment with concurrent code interactively. Or to open a REPL while a migration is running to check on the status in realtime. This is something Swank users have been able to experience for a long time, but Cake brings this to everyone.
Cake’s core philosophy is that tasks should be easy to write. In the Ruby world, developers end up writing a lot of tasks because Rake makes it so easy, and that’s a good thing. It was quite a shock when I first came to Clojure and started using Ant. My build.xml files quickly grew to hundreds of lines. I found myself copying XML between projects, and I had to write Java if I wanted reusable tasks.
Programmers don’t want to think about their build tool. They don’t want to learn a new language to customize their build, and most programmers don’t want the complexity hidden behind their IDE either. Programmers want a build tool that is powerful when they need it, but most of the time, they just want to open up a single file, add a few lines of code, and get on with the rest of their work.
Why does Aquaman get such a bad rap?
If you look into it, you’ll find that almost every person who thinks Aquaman is lame watched Super Friends when they were a kid. Other than Super Friends, Aquaman was actually pretty awesome. The question we should be asking is: Who hated Aquaman so much that they created an anti-Aquaman propaganda machine and dressed it up as a children’s TV show? 2
How does the perception of TDD between the Ruby and Clojure communities differ?
I never really believed in test driven development, even when I was in the midst of it. The biggest problem is that TDD makes it too easy to write bad tests– tests that do more harm than good, like the too-brittle functional test that breaks every time you change anything, or the almost useless unit test that stubs so many interactions that it keeps passing even when everything is totally broken. I’ve wasted too many days fighting with tests like these.
The hard part about software is writing good abstractions, and tests are never going to solve that part for you. It seems too many programmers in the test-driven world write tests before they even understand the problem. It’s really hard to write good tests this way. I’m still a big believer in jumping in and starting to program to figure out your problem. But this only works if you’re willing to throw away the code that isn’t any good, and maybe people are less likely to do that if they already have a full suite of passing tests.
Here’s the thing: tests are incredibly important for making sure your implementation does what you designed it to do, but they are deceptively hard to write well. The best tests are the ones that are written out of necessity rather than habit. The best tests are the ones written after you’ve thought hard about your problem and come up with a good design. If tests are driving development, then tests are also driving design, and tests are never going to design great software. The Clojure community seems to get this.
Favorite asian food?
All of it. I especially love Japanese Curry and Sushi. And Korean food.
What holes do you see in the Clojure landscape?
I’m actually amazed at how few holes there are. It seems that almost every time I’m about to write something from scratch, I find someone else has already done it. A few weeks ago, I was thinking we needed a SQL library based on Relational Algebra. I mentioned it to Lau Jensen and we brainstormed about it, and before I woke up the next day, he had already rewritten ClojureQL. There are a lot of extremely talented programmers in the Clojure community who believe in open source software, and I feel incredibly fortunate to be a part of this community.
As far as future projects, I’m very bad at keeping secrets.
I just finished the new version of jiraph, which is an embedded graph DB for Clojure (and we’re very close to switching geni.com over to use it for our backend data-store). It’s built on top of Tokyo Cabinet and Protocol Buffers, but the latest version uses protocols so the backend is pluggable. We’re working on several different backends, including one that uses the STM and one for memcache. The serialization format is also pluggable, letting you use the Clojure reader if you don’t need the extra performance of protobufs. We’ve talked about adding support for Thrift and Avro too.
There’s also a lot on the horizon for Cake as we move toward a 1.0 release. As soon as I get a free day I’ll be replacing the current two-JVM system with a single JVM that uses classlojure to run the project in a separate classloader from Cake itself. Build tools need to be rock-solid, and this will address a lot of the stability issues we’ve seen.
We’re also working on separating a few of Cake’s other ingredients out into standalone projects. There’s uncle which is the lancet-inspired Ant library used internally by Cake. Luke Renn and I are working on a standalone protocol-based dependency library with Maven and Ivy suppport called depot. And there may or may not be a super-secret project called portal.